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10个常见跑步错误需要避免

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发表于 2010-8-26 10:11 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

10 Common Running Mistakes to Avoid

By Christine Luff

Updated June 09, 2010



10个常见跑步错误需要避免

作者 Christine Luff

201079更新





Running Mistake #1: Wrong Shoes---跑步错误 #1:鞋子错误



All runners have made mistakes at some point during their training and racing. Here are some of the most common running mistakes and how you can avoid injuries and other issues.


在训练和比赛过程中,每个跑步者都会犯这样或那样的错误。以下是最常见跑步错误,以及如何避免损失和其它事项。

The problem: Wearing old running shoes or wearing the wrong type of running shoes for your foot and running style can lead to running injuries.

问题:穿旧跑鞋或穿与脚型和跑姿不符的跑鞋可以导致跑步损伤。

The solution: Go to a running specialty shop, where knowledgeable salespeople can evaluate your running style and foot type. When they determine whether you're an overpronator, underpronator, or neutral runner, they'll make shoe recommendations for you.

Once you get the right pair of running shoes, make sure you replace them every 300-350 miles because the loss of cushioning can lead to injuries. About halfway through the life of your shoes, you might want to buy another pair to rotate into your runs. Your shoes will last longer when you allow them to decompress and dry out between workouts. Also, having a fresh pair of shoes as a reference will help you notice when your old ones are ready to be replaced.

解决方案:去跑步专用品店,知识颇丰的销售人员可以评估您的跑姿和脚型。当确定内翻,外翻,或适中之后,他们会为您推荐跑鞋。

一旦您确定正确的跑鞋,切记每300-350英里(译注:1英里=1.6公里)必须更换一双,因为失去弹性可能造成运动损伤。约在跑鞋一半寿命时,您应该另买一双跑步时轮换着穿。当不使用时可以恢复弹性和干燥,您的跑鞋将延长寿命。另外,有一双新的作比较,您将知道什么时候您的旧鞋该淘汰了。



Running Mistake #2: Too Much, Too Soon---跑步错误 #2: 太多,太快

The problem: Many runners, especially people who are new to running, make the "terrible too's" mistake. They get so excited and enthused about their running that they do too much mileage, too fast, too soon. They mistakenly think that "more is better" when it comes to running. As a result, they often start to develop common overuse running injuries, such as shin splints, runner's knee, or ITB syndrome.

问题:许多跑步者,特别是跑步新人,总是犯“太什么的”错误。他们对跑步过于激动和热情,他们跑太多里程,太快,太多次数。他们错误地认为跑步“越多越好”。结果,他们经常出现常见的过度运动损伤,比如小腿疼,跑步者膝盖或ITB综合症(译注:大腿外侧痛)。

The solution: Be more conservative than you think you need to be with how often, how long, and how much you run, especially early on in your development. Increase your mileage gradually. Don't let your weekly mileage increase by more than 10%. If you're new to running or are coming off a long break, start with walking first, and then progress into a run/walk program.

Pay attention to aches and pains. If a pain gets worse as you continue runs, that's a warning sign that you should stop your run. Listen to your body for injury warning signs and know when you shouldn't run through pain.


Take at least one complete day off from exercise each and every week. Don't ignore rest days -- they're important to your recovery and injury prevention efforts. Your muscles build and repair themselves during your rest days. So if you run every day, you're not going to gain much strength and you're increasing your risk of injury.

解决方案:当考虑您需要跑几次,跑多长时间和跑多少里程时,特别是处于您的早期发展阶段,比您想象的更保守些。逐渐增加您的里程,别让您的周里程增量超过10%。如果您是跑步新人或长久未跑,先从走路开始,然后,进入跑/走训练计划。

关注疼和痛,如果您在跑步时疼痛加剧,则警示您跑步应该结束。时刻聆听您身体的损伤预警,并掌握什么时候您不该带疼跑。


每周至少一天不做任何运动,完全休息。不要忽视休息日---它们对您的恢复和损伤预防非常重要。在休息日,您的肌肉不断地增长和修复。如果每天跑,您不能提高多少力量,您的损伤风险却在不断地提高。




Running Mistake #3: Overstriding---跑步错误 #3: 步子过大


The problem: One of the most common injury-causing running form mistakes is overstriding, or landing heel first with your foot well ahead of your body's center of gravity. Some runners assume that a longer stride will improve their speed or running efficiency, but that's not the case. Overstriding wastes energy since it means you're braking with each foot strike.


问题:最常见的致伤跑姿错误之一是步子过大,或您的脚跟先着地,脚在身体重心之前。许多跑步者认为步子大些可以提高他们的速度或跑步效率,其实不然。步子过大浪费能量,因为您每踏出一步恰如踩一次刹车。


The solution: Make sure that you don't lunge forward with your feet. This is especially important when running downhill. Focus on landing mid-sole, with your foot directly underneath your body with every step. A short, low arm swing is the key to keeping your stride short and close to the ground.


解决方案:注意,您伸脚别太靠前,这一点在下坡时尤其重要。您应该中脚掌着地,您的脚每一步都要落在您身体的正下方。摆臂短且低是您保持小步幅和接近地面的关键。




Running Mistake #4: Losing Control on Hills---跑步错误 #4: 坡道失控


The problem: When running downhill, some people have a tendency to lean way too far forward, overstride, and run out of control.


问题:当跑下坡时,一些人有过度前倾,步子过大和失去控制的倾向。

The solution: The best way to run downhill is to lean forward slightly and take short, quick strides. Don't lean back and try to brake yourself. Try to keep your shoulders just slightly in front of you and your hips under you. Although it's tempting to overstride, avoid taking huge leaping steps to reduce the pounding on your legs.

解决方案:最好的方法是身体略微前倾,步伐短且快。千万别后倾,这样会产生阻力。肩膀保持稍微向前,髋部保持正位。尽管存在步子过大的趋势,为了减少对腿部的冲击,您应该避免步幅过大过高。



Running Mistake #5: Bad Upper Body Form---跑步错误 #5: 上身姿势错误


The problem: Some runners swing their arms side-to-side, which makes you more likely to slouch and not breathe as efficiently. Some beginners have a tendency to hold their hands way up by their chest, especially as they get tired. You'll actually get more tired by holding your arms that way and you'll start to feel tightness and tension in your shoulders and neck.


问题:一些跑步者侧向摆臂,这样您更可能含胸和呼吸不畅。一些跑步新人有把手抬高至胸部的倾向,特别是当他们疲倦之时。手那样抬着,实际上更加累人,您会感到您的肩颈部发紧和紧张。

The solution: Try to keep your hands at waist level, right about where they might lightly brush your hip. Your arms should be at a 90 degree angle, with your elbows at your sides.

Imagine a vertical line splitting your body in half -- your hands should not cross it. Keep your posture straight and erect. Your head should be up, your back straight, and shoulders level. When you're tired at the end of your run, it's common to slump over a little, which can lead to neck, shoulder, and lower-back pain. When you feel yourself slouching, poke your chest out.

解决方案:尽量保持手位于腰部高度,略高于双手可能轻微摩擦您髋部的地方。您的手臂应该保持90度弯角,您的肘部位于您的二侧。

假设有一根垂线将您一分为二---您的双手不能过界。保持您的姿势挺而直,抬起头,挺直腰,双肩水平。当您在跑程末尾感到疲倦时,常见身姿垮下一些,这会导致颈肩腰疼痛。当您感到自己含胸时,挺起您的胸膛。



Running Mistake #6: Not Drinking Enough---跑步错误 #6: 饮水不足

The problem: Many runners underestimate how much fluid they lose during runs and don't drink enough because they're worried about side stitches. As a result, they suffer from dehydration, which can be detrimental to your performance and health.


问题:许多跑步者低估跑步时失去的水分;有些人饮水不足是因为担心小肚子痛。结果,他们出现脱水反应,这样既不利于成绩也不利于健康。

The solution: Runners need to pay attention to what and how much they're drinking before, during and after exercise. Here are some simple rules for drinking and running:

An hour before you start your run, try to drink 16 to 24 ounces of water or other non-caffeinated fluid. Stop drinking at that point, so you can prevent having to stop to go to the bathroom during your run. To make sure you're hydrated before you start running, you can drink another 4 to 8 ounces right before you start.


You should take in 6 to 8 ounces of fluid every 20 minutes during your runs. During longer workouts (90 minutes or more), some of your fluid intake should include a sports drink (like Gatorade) to replace lost sodium and other minerals (electrolytes).


Don't forget to rehydrate with water or a sports drink after your run. You should drink 20 to 24 fl oz. of water for every pound lost. If your urine is dark yellow after your run, you need to keep rehydrating. It should be a light lemonade color.

解决方案:跑步者需要注意,在运动之前,途中和运动之后,应该喝什么喝多少。以下是一些有关饮水和跑步的简单规则:

在开跑一小时之前,喝16-24盎司的水或其它不含咖啡因的饮料。别喝过量,这样可以避免途中不得不去洗手间的麻烦。为了确保跑前饮水充分,您可以刚好在开跑之前再喝4-8盎司。(译注:1盎司=28.35,约28.35ml

在途中,您应该每20分钟补水6-8盎司。如果跑程较长(90分钟左右),应该喝一些运动饮料(比如,Gatorade),补充失去的钠和其它矿物质(电解质)。

别忘了在跑后,继续补充水分或运动饮料。您应该每失去1体重补水20-24盎司。在跑后,如果尿液呈深黄色,您应该继续补水直至您的尿液呈类似柠檬水的淡黄色。




Running Mistake #7: Wrong Clothes---跑步错误 #7: 衣服错误


The problem: Some runners wear the wrong type or too much or too little clothing for the weather conditions, leaving them uncomfortable and at risk for heat-related or cold weather-related illnesses.


问题:有些跑步者的穿着,属于类型错误或相对于天气情况过多过少,使人不舒服,增加患与冷热相关疾病的风险。

The solution: Wearing the right type of fabrics is essential. Runners should stick to technical fabrics such as DryFit, Thinsulate, Thermax, CoolMax, polypropolene, or silk. This will wick the sweat away from your body, keeping you dry. It's very important to make sure you don't wear cotton for this layer because once it gets wet, you'll stay wet, which can be uncomfortable in warmer weather and dangerous in cold weather.

In the winter, make sure that you don't overdress. You should add 15-20 degrees F to the temperature when determining what clothing you should wear -- that's how much you'll warm up once you start running. In the warmer weather, stick to loose, light-colored clothes.

解决方案:最重要的是穿着正确类型的纺织品。跑步者应该坚持技术类纺织品,比如DryFit, Thinsulate, Thermax, CoolMax, 聚丙烯, 或真丝,它们有利于人体排汗,保持皮肤干燥。注意,内层千万别穿棉的,这一点非常重要,一旦棉的汗湿了,您身上一直是潮潮的,热天不舒服,冷天很危险。

注意,别在冬季穿太多。当考虑该穿什么衣服时,您应该看高15-20F(译注:温度转换(F-325/9得摄氏度)---这是一开跑后您体温升高的温度。在夏季,坚持宽松,淡色系衣服。


Running Mistake #8: Overtraining---跑步错误 #8:训练过度


The problem: Some runners who are training for specific races or certain goals run too hard, run too many miles, and don't allow for proper recovery time. They assume that running every day will help them get fitter and faster. Overtraining is the leading cause of injury and burnout for runners.


问题:有些跑步者,为了某个比赛或某个目标,跑得太快,跑得太多,几乎没有恢复时间。他们认为每天跑使他们更强更快。训练过度是跑步者受伤和虚脱的主要原因。

The solution: Here are some ways to avoid overtraining:

Increase your mileage gradually. Don't let your weekly mileage increase by more than 10%.


Try to give yourself periodic "rest weeks" by dropping your mileage by 50% every fourth week.


After a hard run, take a day off. Rest days are important for your recovery and performance.


Add some cross-training activities to your schedule. Doing activities other than running prevents boredom, works different muscles, and can give your running muscles and joints a break.


解决方案:以下是一些避免训练过度的方法:


逐步提高里程,每周里程的增加量不得超过10%


尽量给自己定期安排“休息周”,每4周将里程回调50%


在每次高强度跑之后,休息一天。休息天对您的恢复和成绩同样重要。


在您的训练计划中,添加一些交叉训练。除了跑步,做一些其它运动可以锻炼不同的肌肉,使您的跑步肌肉和关节得以休息。




Running Mistake #9: Going Out Too Fast---跑步错误 #9:起步过快


The problem: When it comes to running long distance races, one of the biggest rookie mistakes is going out too fast in the beginning of the race. Most runners have at least one story about a race when they felt so great during the first few miles that they ran ahead of pace, only to crash and burn during the final miles.


问题:关于长距离跑比赛,跑步新人的最大错误是在比赛开始时起步过快。大多数跑步者至少有一个类似的故事,在比赛的最初几英里,他们感觉良好,跑得过快;在最后几英里,他们疲惫不堪,难以为续。


The solution: Here are some ways that you can avoid going out too fast:

The best way to avoid the temptation of going out too fast is deliberately run your first mile slower than you plan to run the final one. It's tough to do, since you'll most likely feel really strong in the beginning. But keep in mind that for every second you go out too fast in the first half of your race, you'll lose double that amount of time in the second half of your race.


Try to make sure you're in the correct starting position. Don't start yourself with faster runners because you'll most likely try to keep up with them.


Start your race at a comfortable pace and make sure you check your watch at the first mile marker. If you're ahead of your anticipated pace, slow down. It's not too late to make pace corrections after just one mile.


解决方案:以下是一些避免起步过快的方法:


避免起步过快的最佳方法是第1英里您有意识地跑得比最后一英里的计划配速慢一些。这很难办到,因为在开始时,您浑身是劲。但是,要记住每一秒前半程您起步过快,将在后半程加倍偿还。


要准确地判断自己的实力。开始时,不要和比您快的跑步者一起跑,因为您总是想着要跟上他们。


您应该按舒服配速起跑,在第1英里处,确认一下时间。如果快于您计划的配速,立刻减速前进。在跑完1英里时,调整配速恰到好处。




Running Mistake #10: Not Fueling Properly---跑步错误 #10:饮食不当


The problem: Many beginning runners underestimate the importance of nutrition, for both their running performance and their overall health. What and when you eat before, during, and after your runs has a huge effect on your performance and recovery.


问题:许多跑步新人低估了营养对他们跑步成绩和整体健康水平的重要性。在跑前,途中和跑后,您吃什么和什么时间吃对您的成绩和恢复影响巨大。

The solution: Try to eat a light snack or meal about 1 1/2 to 2 hours before a run. Choose something high in carbohydrates and lower in fat, fiber, and protein. Some examples of good pre-workout fuel include: a bagel with peanut butter; a banana and an energy bar; or a bowl of cold cereal with a cup of milk. To avoid gastrointestinal distress, stay away from rich, high-fiber, and high-fat foods.

If you're running more than 90 minutes, you need to replace some of the calories you're burning. You can get carbs on the run through sports drinks or solid foods they are easily digested, such as as energy gels, bars, and even sports jelly beans designed for long-distance runners. A basic rule of thumb is that you should be taking in about 100 calories after about an hour of running and then another 100 calories every 40-45 minutes after that.

Replenish energy as quickly as possible after a workout. Studies have shown that muscles are most receptive to rebuilding glycogen (stored glucose) stores within the first 30 minutes after exercise. If you eat soon after your workout, you can minimize muscle stiffness and soreness. You'll want to consume primarily carbs, but don't ignore protein. A good rule of thumb for post-workout food is a ratio of 1 gram of protein to 3 grams of carbs. A peanut butter and jelly sandwich, a fruit and yogurt smoothie, and chocolate milk are examples of good post-run snacks.


Don't follow a low-carb diet when training. You need a certain amount of carbohydrates in your diet because they're a runner's most important source of fuel.

解决方案:


在开跑前1.5 - 2小时,吃少量点心或食物。选择一些高碳水化合物,低脂肪,低纤维和低蛋白质的东西。作为跑前燃料的一些好例子,它们包括:一个花生酱bagel,一只香蕉,一根能量棒;或一碗牛奶冷麦片。为了避免肠胃不适,远离富含高纤维和高脂肪的食物。

如果跑90分钟以上,您需要补充一些正在燃烧的卡路里。通过运动饮料或易消化的固体食物,比如,长距离跑专用的能量凝胶,能量棒,甚至运动啫喱豆,您可以获得碳水化合物。最重要的基本原则是,您应该在跑步1小时左右摄入100卡路里,然后,每40-45分钟,再摄入100卡路里

在跑步之后,尽快补充能量。研究表明在运动后30分钟之内,肌肉最容易吸收糖原(储存的葡萄糖)。如果运动后立即进食,您可以缓解肌肉紧张和酸痛。您将摄入主要是碳水化合物,但是别忽视蛋白质。运动后的重要原则是蛋白质和碳水化合物之比为13。作为跑后进食的好例子,一份花生酱和果酱三明治,一份水果酸奶冰沙,和巧克力牛奶。

在训练期间,别吃低碳水化合物食物。您的饮食需要一定数量的碳水化合物,因为它们是跑步者最重要的燃料来源。


(译者:摘自www. running.about.com

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